Balanitis, Cystitis, Non-Specific Urethritis, Proctitis and Thrush

Balanitis, Cystitis, Non-Specific Urethritis, Proctitis (part of a group infections called NSGI’s or Non-Specific Genital Infections) and Thrush are all common infections which are caused by an inflammation of the lining of certain parts of your body. Most are caused by a bacterial infection in the area which has irritated the lining. Some like Non-Specific Urethritis can be commonly linked to STIs like Chlamydia. However Balanitis, Proctitis and Cystitis are not always caused by the presence of a Sexually Transmitted infection whilst Thrush is caused by an over-abundance of the Candida Bacteria in your body.

Below you will find a fact checker to help you identify what these STIs look like, how they are transmitted, symptoms of them, treatment and curability.



Balanitis is the inflammation of the glans (or head) of the penis caused by the overgrowth of bacteria naturally occurring in the area.

Causes of Balanitis:

  • Lack of hygiene and or/cleaning around or beneath the foreskin
  • Sometimes caused by a tightness in the foreskin making it difficult to clean (this is called Phimosis)
  • Most commonly occurs in uncircumcised men as the foreskin provides the perfect environment for Balanitis to multiply

Symptoms of Balanitis:

  • Spots
  • Rash
  • Itching
  • Discharge
  • Pain during sex
  • Difficulty Urinating

Treatment for Balanitis:

  • Anti-fungal creams
  • Saline baths
  • Gentle washing with non-irritating soap and warm water
  • In extreme circumstances a circumcision may be required

Is Balanitis curable:

  • Balantitis is treatable and curable. Some men will have recurrent Balanitis which will require continual attention.

Do I need to contact my previous sexual partners:

No – unless an infection has been detected.


Cystitis is the inflammation of the bladder caused by a bladder infection.

Causes of Cystitis:

  • A bacterial infection which develops during a blockage of your urinary system.
  • Damage around the urethra – chemical irritants such as perfumed soap.

Symptoms of Cystitis :

  • Pain when urinating
  • Pressing need to urinate
  • Strong smelling urine which is dark or cloudy
  • Feverishness
  • Pain in abdomen

Treatment for Cystitis:

  • Painkillers
  • Hydration
  • Abstinence until symptoms clear up
  • Antibiotics

Is Cystitis curable:

  • Cystitis is curable.

Do I need to contact my previous sexual partners:

  • No – unless an infection has been detected.

Non-Specific Urethritis

  • Non-Specific Urethritis is an unknown inflammation of the urethra caused by an infection (which is often a Chlamydia infection).

Causes of Non-Specific Urethritis:

  • Irritation to the Urinary tract
  • STI infections such as Chlamydia

Symptoms of Non-Specific Urethritis:

  • White/Cloudy discharge from penis
  • Burning sensation when urinating
  • Tip of penis irritated
  • Need to urinate

Treatment for Non-Specific Urethritis:

  • Antibiotics

Is Non-Specific Urethritis curable:

  • Non-Specific Urethritis is curable.

Do I need to contact my previous sexual partners:

  • Yes – even though an infection may not have been found the likely case is usually a Chlamydia infection.


  • Proctitis is the inflammation of the top 6 inches of rectal lining called the rectal mucosa which is situated in the rectum.

Causes of Proctitis:

  • STIs such as Gonorrhoea, Chlamydia, Syphilis, Herpes and Warts.
  • Auto-immune conditions such as Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis
  • Chemical irritation or foreign agents in the rectum

Symptoms of Proctitis:

  • Pain during a bowl movement
  • Soreness around the anus and/or in the rectum
  • Feeling of not emptying bowels after passing a stool
  • Involuntary spasms and cramping

Treatment for Proctitis:

  • Antibiotics
  • Medications to suppress immune system such as steroids for those suffering as a result of Crohn’s or Ulcerative Colitis

Is Proctitis curable:

  • Proctitis is curable.

Do I need to contact my previous sexual partners:

  • Yes – if it has been not identified as an auto-immune cause then partners should be treated.


  • Thrush is a yeast infection caused by a fungus called Candida Albicans. It is more commonly associated with women but men can also have Thrush

Causes of Thrush:

  • Develops when harmless bacteria which suppresses the infection is destroyed. This can be done by antibiotics or when your immune system is weak.
  • The Candida fungus will cause the thrush to multiply
  • Caused by also not drying after washing or using chemical irritants

Symptoms of Thrush:

  • Irritation
  • Burning under foreskin
  • Redness or red patches on tip of penis
  • Discharge under foreskin which looks like cottage cheese
  • Difficulty pulling back the foreskin

Treatment for Thrush:

  • Anti-Fungal Creams such as Topical Imidazoles

Is Thrush curable:

  • Thrush is curable.

Do I need to contact my previous sexual partners:

  • No – unless an infection has been detected

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